Make Nursing Interventions and Nursing Diagnostic by using this Nursing Care Plan for Dengue Fever guidance.
Dengue hemorrhagic fever, often known as dengue fever, is an infection brought on by the presence of arboviruses in the body. These arboviruses are often spread by female Aedes aegypti mosquito bites, which are the vectors for carrying them.
Children make up the majority of dengue fever patients, but adult dengue illnesses are on the rise as well. Fever, soreness in the muscles or joints, and other flu-like symptoms are among the infection's signs and symptoms. Rashes, petechiae development, and easily bruised patients may also present with mild infections. Some individuals who have severe or hemorrhagic illness also exhibit bleeding tendencies and declining platelet counts. Other signs and symptoms that individuals may experience include:
- Nausea and Diarrhoea
- GI discomfort (either diarrhoea or constipation)
- Bleeding: melena, hematemesis, hematuria, and epistaxis
- joint pains and muscle aches
- Edema around the eyes
Although the symptoms listed above are those that Dengue patients most frequently experience, some people develop a more severe version of the illness and show signs and symptoms of shock as a result of low platelet counts that lead to bleeding issues. However, depending on how far the disease has advanced, different clinical signs appear.
Patient Evaluation with Dengue
Depending on where a patient is in the disease's course, different nursing care is provided to dengue patients. Determining whether the patient has been exhibiting bleeding symptoms and signs, as well as whether blood transfusions or rehydration are necessary, should come first on the evaluation checklist. Regular evaluations of the shock signs and symptoms are also necessary, as are prompt referrals. Patients with dengue were more likely to have the nursing diagnosis listed below:
- Possibility for/inadequate fluid volume
- Nutritional imbalance: insufficient to meet bodily needs
Nursing Care Plan for Dengue Fever
1. Possibility for/inadequate fluid volume
Risk of fluid deficiency volume pertaining to (indicate one or more of the following related factors: migration of intravascular fluid into the extravascular spaces, bleeding, etc.) secondary to the diagnosis of dengue fever, as demonstrated by (note: risk nursing diagnoses often do not call for evidences, although the following may be included if observed during the assessment:
- Greater recorded output compared to intake.
- More than three seconds for the capillary to refill
- Change in vital signs (increased BP, heart rate, and respiratory rate)
- Demonstrate fluid intake and output balance
- Decreased danger of a fluid deficit
At least once every three hours, check the patient's vital signs. Pay close attention to any hydration-related indicators, such as the patient's pulse rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate.
The evaluation of the patient's vital signs aids in determining their condition and identifies changes in the amount of circulating fluid. Additionally, it provides the nurse with an early warning of the development of fluid shortages.
Regularly monitor and note capillary refill times.
Capillary refill time is a sign of appropriate peripheral perfusion and circulation.
Regularly note and record intake and output, paying attention to the traits and quality of urine output (i.e., color, specific gravity, turbidity, transparency, etc.).
Dehydration is typically indicated by concentrated urine. Lower fluid consumption is also indicated by decreased urine production.
If it is not prohibited, increase your oral fluid intake.
The patient can avoid being dehydrated by increasing their oral fluid intake to more than 3 liters each day.
Get ready to give the recommended intravenous fluids.
Giving a patient with dengue fever intravenous fluids can help them regain a proper fluid balance and provide other nutrients they require.
2. Nutritional imbalance: insufficient to meet bodily needs
Deficiency in nutrients to support the body's need for (indicate one or more of the following related factors: inability to ingest an amount of nutrients the body needed; anorexia; nausea and vomiting, etc.) secondary to the diagnosis of dengue fever, as shown by (symptoms during evaluation may include but are not limited to the following:
- Dislike of food
- Unable to consume oral meals or liquids
- Complaints of vomiting and/or nausea
- Loss of weight
- Body aches
- Demonstrate a rise in weight
- Eat in accordance with your nutritional requirements.
- Explain the significance of consuming food and nutrients in accordance with the recommended needs.
Evaluate the patient's views on eating habits and food preferences.
The nurse can better arrange the patient's treatment by having knowledge of the patient's dietary preferences.
Allow the patient to choose their preferred foods from the list of those that are safe for his condition (e.g., except dark-colored foods; foods that contain colorants; etc.).
The patient is encouraged to think about food and eat more when given the freedom to choose from alternatives that he enjoys by being given the opportunity to choose his menu from the list that has been authorized.
Encourage the patient to eat little but frequently—at least once every three to four hours.
Eating smaller meals more often throughout the day helps the patient consume the required number of calories without overloading him.
Present the food in an appetizing and appealing way.
When food is presented in a visually appealing way, the patient is more likely to believe it tastes good, which increases appetite and food intake.
Include recommended vitamins in the patient's diet.
To assist them in achieving their daily needs, some patients might need to add dietary supplements to the suggested dosage.
As directed, provide antiemetics.
Anti-emetics may be required to treat patients with severe nausea and vomiting in order to help them avoid regurgitating their food.
Tell the suffering person to wash their teeth often.
By eliminating plaque and the bad taste and sensation a patient might have after taking medicine or after vomiting, brushing one's teeth might help increase appetite. Remind the patient to avoid using powerful mouthwashes.