These 8 Nursing Diagnosis Can Help You Create Effective Care Plan for Dengue Fever

5/5 - (9 votes)

Dengue Fever

Dengue fever is a viral infection that is spread by mosquitoes. It's most common in tropical and subtropical areas, especially Southeast Asia and Latin America. The virus that causes dengue belongs to the Flaviviridae family and has four different types, all of which can make you sick.

It takes about 3 to 14 days for symptoms to appear after an infected mosquito has bitten you. Dengue fever can feel like the flu, with symptoms such as a high fever, headache, joint and muscle pain, nausea and vomiting, rash, and eye pain. In more severe cases, it can progress to a more dangerous form of the disease called dengue hemorrhagic fever, which can cause bleeding, shock, and even death.

Unfortunately, there's no specific treatment for dengue fever. Treatment mainly focuses on relieving symptoms and preventing complications. In severe cases, you may need to be hospitalized to receive fluids and other supportive care, such as blood transfusions.

The best way to control the spread of dengue fever is by preventing mosquito bites and reducing mosquito populations. This can be done by removing any standing water around your home, using insecticides and mosquito nets, and wearing protective clothing. Dengue fever is a significant public health problem in many parts of the world, and healthcare providers play an important role in preventing and managing the disease.

nursing diagnosis for dengue fever
These 8 Nursing Diagnosis Can Help You Create Effective Care Plan for Dengue Fever 1

Signs and Symptoms of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF):

  • High fever
  • Severe headache
  • Pain behind the eyes
  • Joint and muscle pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Swollen glands
  • Rash on the skin
  • Mild bleeding from the nose or gums
  • Easy bruising
  • Fatigue and weakness

The complication of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever

  • Severe bleeding
  • Organ damage, particularly to the liver
  • Shock
  • Respiratory distress
  • Dehydration
  • Coma
  • Death

Classification of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever

  1. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) Grade 1:
    • Fever lasting 2 to 7 days
    • Mild bleeding from the nose or gums
    • Petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin)
    • Easy bruising
  2. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) Grade 2:
    • All of the symptoms of Grade 1
    • Abdominal pain
    • Vomiting
    • Persistent vomiting
    • Fluid accumulation in the body
    • Increased heart rate
    • Narrowing of the pulse pressure
  3. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) Grade 3:
    • All of the symptoms of Grade 1 and Grade 2
    • Signs of circulatory failure, such as rapid breathing and weak pulse
    • Cold, clammy skin
    • Restlessness
  4. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) Grade 4:
    • All of the symptoms of Grade 3
    • Profound shock
    • Severe bleeding
    • Organ failure

Nursing Assessment:

During the nursing assessment, the following should be evaluated for the patient with Dengue fever:

  1. Overall Health Status:
    • Conduct a thorough physical assessment to evaluate the patient's overall health status.
  2. Vital Signs:
    • Assess vital signs, including temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure.
  3. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance:
    • Monitor fluid and electrolyte balance to detect signs of dehydration.
  4. Bleeding or Hemorrhage:
    • Observe for any signs of bleeding or hemorrhage, such as bleeding gums, nosebleeds, or ecchymosis.
  5. Skin Condition:
    • Evaluate the patient's skin condition and note the presence of rashes or petechiae.
  6. Respiratory Distress:
    • Check for signs of respiratory distress, such as shortness of breath or chest pain.
  7. Renal Function:
    • Monitor the patient's urine output to assess renal function.
  8. Shock:
    • Assess for any signs of shock, such as hypotension, rapid pulse, and cool, clammy skin.

Nursing Care Plan:

The nursing care plan for a patient with Dengue fever includes the following:

  1. Supportive Care:
    • Provide supportive care, including rest and hydration, to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.
  2. Medications:
    • Administer medications as prescribed to manage fever, pain, and other symptoms.
  3. Fluid Management:
    • Monitor fluid intake and output closely to prevent dehydration and maintain adequate fluid balance.
  4. Nutrition:
    • Encourage the patient to eat small, frequent meals to prevent nausea and vomiting.
  5. Cooling Techniques:
    • Cooling techniques, such as tepid sponging or a cool compress, help reduce fever.
  6. Education:
    • Educate the patient on the importance of preventing mosquito bites from preventing the spread of the virus.
  7. Monitoring:
    • Monitor the patient's condition closely and report any changes to the healthcare team.
  8. Emotional Support:
    • Provide emotional support to help the patient cope with the illness and reduce anxiety.

8 possible Nursing Diagnosis for Dengue Fever

  1. Risk for Fluid Volume Deficit related to vomiting, diarrhea, and increased capillary permeability.
  2. Risk for Infection related to mosquito bite and reduced immunity.
  3. Hyperthermia related to the inflammatory response to the dengue virus.
  4. Impaired Skin Integrity related to petechiae, ecchymosis, and rash.
  5. Risk for Bleeding related to thrombocytopenia and increased capillary fragility.
  6. Acute Pain related to muscle and joint pain, headache, and abdominal cramps.
  7. Fatigue related to the systemic effects of the dengue virus.
  8. Anxiety related to the uncertain prognosis of dengue fever and potential complications.
graph TD A[Dengue Fever] -- Mosquito bites --> B((Viral infection)) B -- Symptoms appear in 3-14 days --> C(Symptoms) C -- Fever, headache, joint/muscle pain --> D(Mild dengue fever) C -- Progress to severe form --> E(Dengue hemorrhagic fever) E -- Grades 1-4 --> I(Classification) I -- Grade 1: fever lasting 2-7 days, mild bleeding, petechiae, easy bruising --> J(Nursing Assessment) I -- Grade 2: symptoms of Grade 1 + abdominal pain, vomiting, fluid accumulation, increased heart rate, narrowing of pulse pressure --> J I -- Grade 3: symptoms of Grade 1 and 2 + signs of circulatory failure, cold/clammy skin, restlessness --> J I -- Grade 4: symptoms of Grade 3 + profound shock, severe bleeding, organ failure --> J J -- Thorough physical assessment --> K(Overall Health Status) J -- Assess vital signs --> K J -- Monitor fluid and electrolyte balance --> K J -- Observe for signs of bleeding or hemorrhage --> K J -- Evaluate skin condition --> K J -- Check for signs of respiratory distress --> K J -- Monitor urine output --> K J -- Assess for signs of shock --> K K -- Provide supportive care --> L(Nursing Care Plan) K -- Administer medications as prescribed --> L K -- Monitor fluid intake and output --> L K -- Encourage small, frequent meals --> L K -- Use cooling techniques --> L K -- Educate on preventing mosquito bites --> L K -- Monitor condition closely --> L K -- Provide emotional support --> L E -- Can cause bleeding, shock, and death --> F(Complications) F -- No specific treatment --> G(Prevention) G -- Remove standing water, use insecticides/mosquito nets, wear protective clothing --> H(Control the spread) E -- Thrombocytopenia and increased capillary fragility --> M(Risk for Bleeding) D -- Muscle/joint pain, headache, and abdominal cramps --> N(Acute Pain) D -- Systemic effects of dengue virus --> O(Fatigue) B -- Mosquito bite and reduced immunity --> P(Risk for Infection) A -- Common in tropical areas --> B A -- Virus belongs to Flaviviridae family --> B A -- Vomiting, diarrhea, and increased capillary permeability --> Q(Risk for Fluid Volume Deficit) E -- Uncertain prognosis and potential complications --> R(Anxiety) E -- Petechiae, ecchymosis, and rash --> S(Impaired Skin Integrity)

I'm Deepak, an experienced nursing professional with a Master's degree in Medical Surgical Nursing. As the founder of, I aim to share my knowledge and expertise in nursing by providing valuable insights and updates on the latest developments in the field. Stay informed and learn about new techniques and treatments through my blog.

Leave a Comment